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Definition, aetiology, prevention and treatment of peri-implantitis – Current study results

Ole Jung, Dr med. Dr med. dent. Henning Hanken, Prof. Dr med. Dr med. dent. Max Heiland, Prof. Dr med. Dr med. dent. Ralf Smeets

Peri-implant inflammations are serious complications following dental implants that affect both the surrounding hard tissue and the soft tissue. With prevalence rates of up to 56%, they can result in the loss of the dental implant if a multilateral treatment concept is not applied.

Adequate patient-specific follow-up examinations (recall) and recording or eliminating risk factors are effective preventive measures. The type and structure of the implant surface also play a role in addition to aspects of the osseointegration.

Various conservative and surgical treatment options are available for when peri-implantitis occurs. Conservative methods include the use of different manual ablations, laser-guided systems as well as photodynamic forms of therapy which can be supplemented by the administration of systemic and local antibiotics. Resective surgery is used primarily with peri-implantitis that has progressed further to eliminate pathogenic formations, while regenerative materials are used supportively. The CIST protocol can be applied as a guide for how to proceed with peri-implantitis.

This article summarises the causes, epidemiology and therapy of peri-implantitis taking into account the current body of data.

Key words: Peri-implantitis, periodontitis, mucositis